Galvanizing – Open Sections

Provided the general Welding Guidelines are observed and that the necessary precautions are taken to Avoid Distortion, the galvanizing of open sections present few problems, their open nature ensures an efficient run-off of pre-treatment liquids and a smooth flow and equal coating of molten zinc. However, end-plates, stiffeners and gusset plates can hinder drainage and …

Galvanizing – Open Sections Read Article »

Galvanizing – The Process / Introduction

In suitable applications, hot dip galvanizing provides ideal corrosion protection for steel – no other coating matches galvanizing’s unique combination of low initial cost, ease of inspection for coating quality, durability, predictable performance, low maintenance and resistance to abrasion and mechanical damage. Hot dip galvanizing is often perceived to be more expensive than it is. …

Galvanizing – The Process / Introduction Read Article »

HSS – Fastener Options

There are basically 3 means of connecting steel hollow sections, which include: Welding Through-Bolting, and Blind-Bolting Welding is usually restricted to workshop joints and applied mainly in the fabrication of trusses, lattice girders and sub-assemblies. For more information on this go to Welded Joints Site welding should be avoided – it’s costly, often difficult and …

HSS – Fastener Options Read Article »

HSS – Beam to Column / Bolted Moment Connections

A moment connection is designed to resist rotation at the joint – most hollow section connections, unlike open section connections, will not allow a great deal of flexibility and will rely on the rotation capacity of the connection components of the incoming beam. These connections are defined specifically as Moment Resisting which means the load …

HSS – Beam to Column / Bolted Moment Connections Read Article »

HSS – Beam to Column / Bolted Fin-Plates

Typical Examples Beam to column connections using Fin-Plates are probably the most widely used connection due to their relative ease of fabrication and erection. The main advantage lies with the fact that they are all Through-Bolted. The following examples show typical connections graduating for the simplest and most straightforward to the more complex (and costly) …

HSS – Beam to Column / Bolted Fin-Plates Read Article »

HSS – Beam to Column / Bolted End-Plates / Cleats

These connections are not generally regarded as Moment Resisting, but due to their configuration they will offer some resistance against rotation. The determining factor lies with the Rotation Capacity of the joint components. (For more about the rotation capacity go to Moment Connections) Typical Examples The first 4 examples show typical beam to column connections …

HSS – Beam to Column / Bolted End-Plates / Cleats Read Article »

Steel Hollow Sections

Square, Rectangular, and Round Hollow Structural Section (HSS) The hollow section profile possesses a greater strength-to-weight ratio than conventional open sections which allows for a greater flexibility in use due to its enhanced efficiency and inherent resistance to compression and torsion. This makes them ideal for use as structural column, shafts, trusses, composite beams and …

Steel Hollow Sections Read Article »

Loads – Introduction

Loads, and what the steel detailer should know Some may argue that and understanding of loads and how they affect a steel structure is the realm of the engineer and designer, which is absolutely true – but it’s an advantage to any structural steel detailer to have at least a basic understanding of what it …

Loads – Introduction Read Article »

Live Loads

Live loads are dynamic in nature and may be generated from within or outside of the structure. Those from within are produced by the use and occupancy of the building and may be induced by human activity, vehicles in motion, or operational machinery and equipment. Note! Occupancy loads may also be classified as Superimposed Loads …

Live Loads Read Article »

Seismic Loads

The earth’s surface is made up of numerous tectonic plates which are constantly in motion relative to one another pushing one against the other. These points of contact are known as the ‘Fault-Lines’, and when the pressure of the contact reaches a certain level, something has to give, resulting in a violent and sudden slip. …

Seismic Loads Read Article »

Wind Loads

Wind loads are essentially horizontal in nature and are exerted by wind pressure acting upon the external surfaces of the structure, and like a sailboat, the greater the surface area presented to the wind, the greater the force. Wind pressure is directly related to wind velocity. At ground level, the wind velocity is virtually zero …

Wind Loads Read Article »

Gravity Loads

Gravity Loads Gravity Loads or Static Loads are essentially what you would imagine, stationary loads imposed by gravity, which can be divided into 2 sub-categories which include Dead and Superimposed Loads: Dead Loads: include the self-weight of the structure including all items that are permanently connected to, and forming part of the structure, including, walls, …

Gravity Loads Read Article »

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections

Index In this sub-section we look at typical vertical bracing connections for various bracing types. they include: Single Angles Double (Battened Back-To-Back) Angles Double (Battened Starred) Angles Single and Double (Battened Back-To-Back ) Channels Heavy Duty Bolted / Welded Heavy Duty All Bolted Compression Struts with End-Plates Compression Struts with Splice-Plates Girder (Bridge) Connections  

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Compression Struts with Splice Plates

These heavy-duty bracings are generally designed to work in compression, with the tensile stress being considered insignificant and largely ignored. Such bracing is often used in structures which are subject to high lateral loads, particularly in areas which are subject to seismic activity. The joint ends should be faced for full bearing, but this can …

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Compression Struts with Splice Plates Read Article »

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Compression Struts with End-Plates

Theses heavy-duty bracings are generally designed to work in compression only, with the tensile stress being considered insignificant and largely ignored. Such bracing is often used in structures which are subject to high lateral loads, particularly in areas which are subject to seismic activity. The joint between the flanges must be true and square in …

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Compression Struts with End-Plates Read Article »

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Heavy-Duty All Bolted

The following typical connections apply to –I- or –H- profile bracing which may be subject to tension or compression. The flange angles are bolted to the gusset plate and site-bolted to bracing member on erection. This all-bolted option allows for some fabrication alignment (but not much) as the bolt clearance holes will allow for some …

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Heavy-Duty All Bolted Read Article »

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Heavy-Duty Bolted / Welded

The following typical connections apply to –I- or –H- profile bracing which may be subject to tension or compression. The flange plates are slotted to ‘wrap around’ the gusset plate and shop welded in position. The bracing members are then site-bolted to the flange and web plates. Any misalignment may be compensated for by allowing …

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Heavy-Duty Bolted / Welded Read Article »

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Single and Double (Battened) Channels

The following typical connections are for channel section bracing which may be either single or doubled back-to-back, being the more common. This type of bracing usually requires a double row of bolts equally spaced about the centre-line of the bracing member. The general rules-of-thumb for the spacing of the battens applying to Angle bracing may …

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Single and Double (Battened) Channels Read Article »

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Double (Starred) Angles

The following typical connections are for double (starred) angles connected by means of Gusset Plates – To ensure the angles work together as a single unit they should be joined together by means of battens, which are fabricated spacers placed at intervals along the bracing member’s length. Star-Battens will be looked at later in this …

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Double (Starred) Angles Read Article »

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Double (Battened) Angles

The following typical connections are for double (back-to-back) angles connected by means of Gusset Plates – To ensure the angles work together as a single unit they should be joined together by mean of battens, which are fabricated spacers placed at intervals along the bracing member’s length. Back-to-Back Battens will be looked at later in …

Typical Vertical Bracing Connections Double (Battened) Angles Read Article »

Flexible Connections

What are Flexible Connections? Flexible Connections will be the most common type likely to be encountered by the detailer, they will make up just about all beam-to-beam connections and for braced frames, will be found to make up the beam-to-column connections as well. So, what is a Flexible Connection? When a vertical load is applied …

Flexible Connections Read Article »

Scroll to Top